CHARACTERISTICS OF OFFENDERS 1 страница

В.В. Голованёв

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ

Для юристов

Учебное пособие для студентов вузов

Минск

ТетраСистемс


УДК811.111(075.8):34

ББК81.2Англ-923

Г61

Автор старший преподаватель английского языка В.В. Голованёв

РецензентЕ.М. Павловская

Голованёв В.В.

Г61 Английский для юристов: учеб. пособие для студентов

Вузов / В.В. Голованёв. - Мн.: ТетраСистемс, 2005. - 192 с.

ISBN 985-470-280-4.

Данное учебное пособие состоит из одиннадцати глав, содержащих современные, профессионально ориентированные материалы, касающиеся уголовного права Великобритании и США.

Каждый текст пособия снабжен кратким словарем и упражнениями, целью которых является усвоение лексики данного текста, контроль за пониманием содержания прочитанного, развитие навыков чтения и устной речи. В приложении представлена Всеобщая декларация прав человека и задания к ней.

Для студентов вузов, специалистов, изучающих английский язык в связи с правовой сферой деятельности. Может быть полезно старшеклассникам и всем лицам, изучающим английский язык в группах и самостоятельно.

УДК 8И.Ш(075.8):34

ББК 81.2Англ-923

ISBN 985-470-280-4

© Голованёв В.В., 2005

© Оформление. НТООО "ТетраСистемс", 2005


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное учебное пособие состоит из одиннадцати глав, содержащих современные профессионально ориентированные материалы, касающиеся уголовного права Великобритании и США. В содержании книги следующие тексты:

I. Criminal law/ Уголовное право

1) Criminal law and its concerns / Уголовное право и его сфера деятельности

2) The concept of crime / Концепция преступления

3) Criminal responsibility / Уголовная ответственность

II. Classification of crimes/ Классификация преступлений

4) Felony and misdemeanour / Фелония и мисдиминор

5) Murder / Тяжкое убийство

6) Rape / Изнасилование

7) Incest / Кровосмешение

8) Arson / Поджог

9) Theft / Кража

10)Organized crime / Организованная преступность

11) White-collar crime / Беловоротничковое преступление

12)Terrorism / Терроризм

III. Characteristics of offenders/ Характеристика правонарушителей

13) Male criminality and female criminality / Мужская и женская преступность

14) Age, social and racial aspects of criminality /Возрастная, социальная и расовая преступность

IV. Causation of crime/ Причинная обусловленность преступления

15) Biological theories / Биологические теории

16) Sociological theories / Социологические теории

17) Psychological theories / Психологические теории.

18) Marxist theories / Марксистские теории.

V. Detection of crime/ Раскрытие преступления

19) Crime detection and its phases / Фазы раскрытия преступления

20)Suspect identification by fingerprints / Идентификация подозреваемого по отпечаткам пальцев

21) Scientific techniques to identify suspects / Научные методы идентификации подозреваемого

22)Gathering evidence / Сбор свидетельских показаний

23) Interrogation and confession / Дознание и признание в совершении преступления

VI. Criminal procedure/ Уголовный процесс

24) Criminal procedure in England / Уголовный процесс в Англии

25) Criminal procedure in the United States / Уголовный процесс в США

VII. Legal profession/ Профессия юриста

26) Court and its people / Суд и его действующие лица

27) Solicitor / Солиситор

28) Barrister / Барристер

29) Jury / Присяжные

VIII. Imprisonment/ Тюремное заключение

30) Prison / Тюрьма

31) Types of prisons / Тюрьма и её разновидности

32) Some aspects of the prisoner's life / Некоторые аспекты жизни заключённого

IX. Capital punishment/ Смертная казнь

33) Capital punishment and its application / Применение смертной казни

34) Capital punishment and its abolition / Отмена смертной казни

35) Capital punishment and its constitutionality / Конституционность смертной казни

X. Police agency and its detectives/ Полиция и сыщики

36) Scotland Yard / Скотленд-ярд

37) Federal Bureau of Investigation / ФБР

38) Interpol / Интерпол

39) Edgar Hoover / Эдгар Гувер

40) Allan Pinkerton / Аллан Пинкертон

41) Francois-Eugene Vidocq / Эжен Франсуа Видок

XI. Mafia and its mafiosi/ Мафия и мафиози

42) Mafia / Мафия

43) Al Capone / Аль Капоне

44) Lucky Luciano / Счастливчик Лучано

45) Joseph Valachi / Джозеф Валачи

Каждый текст пособия снабжён кратким словарём и упражнениями, целью которых является усвоение лексики данного текста, контроль за пониманием содержания прочитанного, развитие навыков чтения и устной речи. В приложении представлена (в виде текста) ВСЕОБЩАЯ ДЕКЛАРАЦИЯ ПРАВ ЧЕЛОВЕКА и задания к ней. Пособие рассчитано на широкую аудиторию специалистов, изучающих английский язык в связи с правовой специальностью. Оно может быть полезно старшеклассникам и всем лицам, изучающим английский язык в группах и самостоятельно.

ВИДЫ УПРАЖНЕНИЙ

I. Бегло просмотреть текст. Работая в парах, а) ответить на вопросы к тексту (1-15 уроки); б) восстановить порядок слов в вопросах, которые следуют за текстом, и ответить на них (16-30 уроки); в) задать свои собственные вопросы к тексту и ответить на них (31^5 уроки).

II. Согласиться или не согласиться с представленными утверждениями.

III. Восстановить порядок слов в предложениях и прочитать их.

IV. Перевести отдельные слова и выражения из текста с русского языка на английский язык.

V. Закончить предложения.

VI. Выбрать тему, найти в тексте соответствующую информацию и воспроизвести её.

VII. Пересказать текст.


CHAPTER I

CRIMINAL LAW

UNIT 1

► Ex. I. Scan through the text Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Criminal lawis the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons, and fixes punishment for convicted offenders. Criminal law defines acts as criminal. In other words, however immoral or unjust an act may be thought to be, it is not a crime unless the law says it is one. A crime is usually defined as a voluntary act or omission, together with a given state of mind. The state of mind involves purpose, awareness, recklessness, or negligence. Acts committed during fits of epilepsy or while sleepwalking are involuntary and thus do not qualify as crimes. Mental disorders are also recognized as limiting or absolving responsibility for acts otherwise regarded as criminal. The law of most countries recognizes that the use of force might be justifiable. The use of force might be justifiable in self-defense, defense of other persons, protection of property, and enforcement of the law. Criminal acts include arson, rape, treason, aggravated assault, theft, burglary, robbery, murder, and conspiracy. [Conspiracy is a secret plan made by two or more people to do something that is harmful or illegal] Criminal law also deals with the preparation of charges and with trial procedures. The latter involves the formation of juries, the guarantee of a public trial, the right to counsel, the presentation of evidence, the establishment of guilt, and sentencing, if guilt has been established. Criminal law is concerned with postconviction procedures, such as calling for a new trial or challenging a conviction, either in the court where the conviction was declared or in appeal to a higher court.

criminal law уголовное право enforcement of law применение закона
body of laws совокупность правовых норм arson поджог
apprehension задержание, арест rape изнасилование
charging обвинение treason государственная измена
convicted осужденный aggravated assault нападение при отягчающих обстоятельствах
voluntary act умышленное действие theft кража
omission бездействие burglary ночная кража со взломом
state of mind намерения, направление мыслей; психическое состояние robbery грабеж с насилием или разбой
epilepsy эпилепсия murder умышленное убийство
awareness отчет в собственных действиях conspiracy сговор о совершении преступления
recklessness опрометчивость, неосторожность, public trial открытый судебный процесс
negligence небрежность right to counsel право пользоваться помощью адвоката
mental disorder психическое заболевание establish the guilt доказать вину
absolve прощать postconviction procedure судопроизводство после осуждения
otherwise в других отношениях challenge оспаривать
justifiable могущий быть оправданным conviction обвинительный приговор

1) What law defines criminal offenses? 2) What does criminal law regulate? 3) What does criminal law fix? 4) It is not a crime unless the law says it is one, is it? 5) What is a crime usually defined as? 6) What does the state of mind involve? 7) What acts are not qualified as crimes? 8) What is also recognized as absolving responsibility for criminal acts? 9) What does the law of most countries recognize? 10) What do criminal acts include? 11) What does criminal law also deal with? 12) What do trial procedures involve? 13) What is criminal law concerned with?

► Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Criminal law defines civil offenses. 2) Criminal law doesn't regulate the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons. 3) Criminal law prescribes the punishment for convicted offenders. 4) A crime is usually defined as a voluntary act, together with a given state of mind. 5) The state of mind involves criminal purpose, consciousness, carelessness, or neglect behavior. 6) Acts committed during fits of anger are involuntary and thus do not qualify as crimes. 7) Political disorders are also recognized as limiting or absolving responsibility for acts otherwise regarded as criminal. 8) The use of force is unjustifiable in self-defense and enforcement of the law. 9) Criminal acts include spontaneous combustion and parking violation. 10) Trial procedures don't include the formation of juries and the establishment of guilt.

► Ex. III. Restore the word order in the following statements.

1) Criminal law criminal offenses defines. 2) Criminal law the apprehension of suspected regulates persons. 3) Criminal law the charging of suspected regulates persons. 4) Criminal law the trial of suspected persons regulates. 5) Criminal law punishment for convicted offenders fixes. 6) It is not a crime unless the law it is one says. 7) A crime a dishonest, violent, or immoral action that can be punished by law is. 8) The state of mind purpose and awareness involves. 9) Acts are committed during fits of epilepsy involuntary. 10) Acts qualify committed while sleepwalking do not as crimes. 11) The use of force might justifiable be. 12) Criminal acts murder and conspiracy include. 13) Criminal law with the preparation of charges deals. 14) Criminal law with trial procedures deals. 15) Trial procedures the formation of juries involve. 16) Criminal law is with postconviction procedures concerned.

► Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Самовозгорание; умышленное убийство; сговор о совершении преступления; открытый судебный процесс; право пользоваться помощью адвоката; доказать вину; судопроизводство после осуждения; оспаривать; уголовное право; совокупность правовых норм; обвинение; осужденный-умышленное действие; задержание; обвинительный приговор; бездействие; психическое состояние; эпилепсия; отчет в собственных действиях; неосторожность; прощать; могущий быть оправданным; применение закона; нападение при отягчающих обстоятельствах; кража; ночная кража со взломом; грабеж с насилием или разбой; небрежность; поджог; изнасилование; измена; психическое заболевание.

► Ex. V. Complete the following statements.

1) Criminal law defines ... 2) Criminal law regulates ... 3) Criminal law fixes... 4) It is not a crime unless ... 5) A crime is defined as ... 6) The state of mind involves ... 7) Acts committed during ... don't qualify as ... 8) Mental disorders are recognized as ... 9) The use of force is justifiable in ... 10) Criminal acts include ... 11) Criminal law deals with ... 12) Trial procedures involve ... 13) Criminal law is concerned with ...

► Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) what criminal law deals with; b) crime and its definition; c) unjustifiable and justifiable use of force. Retell the text Criminal law.


UNIT 2

► Ex. I. Scan through the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

The concept of crime.Crime and punishment - respectively, the intentional commission of an act usually deemed socially harmful or dangerous and specifically defined, prohibited, and punishable under the criminal law; and the infliction of some kind of pain or loss upon a person found guilty of committing such a misdeed. Crime is whatever conduct the laws of a particular jurisdiction designate as criminal, and there are many differences from one country to another as to what behaviour is prohibited. Conduct that is lawful in one country may be criminal in another, and activity that amounts to a trivial infraction in one country may constitute a serious crime elsewhere. Changing times and social attitudes may lead to changes in the criminal law, so that behaviour that was once criminal becomes lawful. Abortion, once prohibited except in the most unusual circumstances, has become lawful in many countries, as has homosexual behaviour in private between consenting adults, which was once a serious offense. Suicide and attempted suicide, once criminal, have also been removed from the criminal law in many countries. The trend generally is to increase the scope of the criminal law rather than to reduce it. It is more common to find that laws create new criminal offenses than that they abolish old ones. New technologies give rise to new opportunities for their abuse, which in turn give rise to legal restrictions; just as the invention of the motor vehicle led to the creation of new criminal laws designed to regulate its use, so the use of computers has created the need to legislate against new abuses and frauds—or old frauds committed in new ways.

VOCABULARY

deem считать attempted suicide покушение на самоубийство
infliction причинение trend тенденция
misdeed злодеяние scope рамки
jurisdiction судебная практика abuse злоупотребление
designate определять legal restriction правовое ограничение
amount to доходить до legislate издавать законы
trivial infraction мелкое правонарушение fraud мошенничество
constitute составлять inflict harm on причинить вред
abortion аборт lawful age гражданское совершеннолетие
homosexual гомосексуальный intentional participator in a crime соучастник преступления
in private наедине specially dangerous особо опасный
consent согласие relief облегчение
adult совершеннолетний

1) What is meant by the term "crime"? 2) What is meant by the term "punishment"? 3) Crime is whatever conduct the laws of a particular jurisdiction designate as criminal, isn't it? 4) Are there many differences from one country to another as to what behaviour is prohibited? 5) Conduct that is lawful in one country may be criminal in another, mayn't it? 6) Activity that amounts to a trivial infraction in one country may constitute a serious crime elsewhere, mayn't it? 7) May changing times and social attitudes lead to changes in the criminal law? 8) Can behaviour that was once criminal become lawful? 9) What creates new criminal offenses?

Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Crime is the intentional commission of an act deemed socially harmless. 2) Crime is the intentional commission of an act deemed specially dangerous. 3) Crime is needful to be specifically defined. 4) Crime should be authorized. 5) Crime is to be punishable under the civil law. 6) Punishment is the infliction of pleasure upon a person found guilty of committing a misdeed. 7) Punishment is the infliction of relief upon a person found guilty of committing a misdeed. 8) Crime is whatever conduct the laws of a particular jurisdiction define as criminal. 9) Conduct that is lawful in one country may be unlawful in another. 10) Behaviour that was once lawful becomes criminal. 11) Laws must not create new criminal offenses. 12) New technologies give decrease to new opportunities for their abuse


► Ex. III. Restore the word order in the following statements.

1) Crime the intentional commission of an act is deemed socially harmful. 2) Crime the intentional is commission of an act deemed socially dangerous. 3) Crime be specifically must defined. 4) Crime be should prohibited. 5) Crime to be punishable under the criminal law is. 6) Punishment the infliction of pain upon a person found guilty of committing a is misdeed. 7) Punishment the infliction of loss upon a person found guilty of committing a misdeed is. 8) Crime whatever conduct the laws of a particular jurisdiction designate as criminal is. 9) Conduct may be that is lawful in one country criminal in another. 10) Behaviour becomes that was once criminal lawful. 11) Laws new criminal offenses create. 12) New technologies rise to new give opportunities for their abuse. 14) The led invention of the motor vehicle to the creation of new criminal laws designed to regulate its use. 15) The use of computers the need to legislate against new frauds created.

► Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Издавать законы; мошенничество; причинить вред; гражданское совершеннолетие; особо опасный; причинение; злодеяние; судебная практика; мелкое правонарушение; аборт; злоупотребление; правовое ограничение; гомосексуальный; согласие; совершеннолетний; покушение на самоубийство; соучастник преступления; облегчение.

► Ex. V. Complete the following statements.

1) Crime is the intentional commission of ... 2) Punishment is the infliction of ... 3) Crime is whatever ... 4) Conduct that is lawful in one country may be ... 5) It is more common to find that laws ... 6) New technologies give ... 7) The invention of the motor vehicle led ... 8) The use of computers created ...

► Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about

a) crime and punishment;

b) lawful and unlawful conduct;

c) new technologies and new criminal laws.

Retell the text “The concept of crime”.


UNIT3

► Ex. I. Scan through the text Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Criminal responsibility.Criminal responsibility is not limited only to those who perform the criminal acts themselves. As a general principle, anyone who "aids and abets" the perpetrator by encouraging or in any way knowingly helping him (for instance, by providing information, implements, or practical help) is an accomplice and is considered equally guilty. Those who actually perform the criminal act (e.g., wielding the weapon that strikes the fatal blow) are called principals in the first degree; those who assist at the time of the commission of the offense (e.g., holding the victim down while the principal in the first degree strikes the blow) are principals in the second degree; and those who assist before the crime takes place (e.g., by lending the weapon or by providing information) are accessories before the fact. As a general rule, all are equally responsible in the eyes of the law and liable to the same punishment. In many cases the accessory before the fact will be considered more culpable—if, for instance, he has instigated the offense and arranged for it to be committed. In some cases the person who actually performs the act that causes the crime is completely innocent of evil intent —for instance, the nurse who administers to a patient, on the doctor's instructions, what she believes to be medicine but what is in fact poison. In this situation the person who carries out the act is an innocent agent and is not criminally responsible; the person who causes the innocent agent to act is the principal in the first degree. The accessory after the fact is one who helps a felon to evade arrest or conviction, by, for example, hiding him or destroying evidence.

VOCABULARY

abet подстрекать instigate подстрекать
perpetrator нарушитель evil intent злое намерение
encourage поощрять administer снабдить
knowingly намеренно cause заставлять
implements инструменты innocent agent невиновный агент;
accomplice сообщник accessory after the fact соучастник после события преступления (укрыватель, недоноситель)
wield иметь в руках resetter укрыватель имущества, добытого заведомо преступным путем; укрыватель преступника
principal исполнитель преступления non-information недоносительство
hold down удерживать felon уголовный преступник
accessory before the fact соучастник до события преступления evade избегнуть
liable подлежащий conviction осуждение
culpable виновный

1) Criminal responsibility is not limited only to those who perform the criminal acts themselves, is it? 2) Who is considered equally guilty? 3) Who are called principals in the first degree? 4) Who are principals in the second degree? 5) Who are accessories before the fact? 6) Who are equally responsible in the eyes of the law and liable to the same punishment? 7) When will the accessory before the fact be considered more culpable? 8) In what cases is the person who actually performs the act that causes the crime completely innocent? 9) Who causes the innocent agent to act? 10) Who is the accessory after the fact?

► Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Criminal responsibility is limited only to those who perform the criminal acts themselves. 2) The sketch of the perpetrator aids the police to prove the identity of the perpetrator. 3) Anyone who abets the perpetrator by providing information is a partator. 4) Anyone who helps the perpetrator by providing implements is not a law-breaker. 5) Anyone who abets the criminal by providing practical help is not an evil-doer. 6) Anyone who encourages the perpetrator is considered unequally guilty. 7) Those who actually perform the criminal act are called principals in the second degree. 8) Those who assist at the time of the commission of the offense are principals in the first degree. 9) Those who assist before the crime takes place are accessories after the fact. 10) The accessory before the fact is one who helps a felon to evade conviction by destroying evidence. 11) Principals and accessories are equally irresponsible in the eyes of the law. 12) Principals and accessories are likely to be affected by the same punishment. 13) The person who actually performs the act that causes the crime might be completely guilty of evil intent. 14) The person who carries out the act unknowingly is innocent in law. 15) The innocent agent is criminally responsible.

► Ex. III. Restore the word order in the following statements.

1) Criminal responsibility not limited only to those who perform the criminal acts themselves is. 2) Anyone is who aids and abets the perpetrator by providing information an accomplice. 3) Anyone who is aids the perpetrator by providing implements an accomplice. 4) Anyone who the perpetrator by providing practical help is an abets accomplice. 5) Anyone who the perpetrator is considered equally encourages guilty. 6) Those who actually the criminal act are called principals in the first degree perform. 7) Those who the weapon that strikes the fatal blow are wield called principals in the first degree. 8) Those assist who at the time of the commission of the offense are principals in the second degree. 9) Those hold who the victim down while the principal in the first degree strikes the blow are principals in the second degree. 10) Those assist who before the crime takes place are accessories before the fact. 11) Those who the weapon or provide information are lend accessories before the fact. 12) Principals and accessories equally responsible in the eyes of the law are. 13) Principals and accessories are to the same punishment liable. 14) The might accessory before the fact be considered more culpable if he has instigated the offense and arranged for it to be committed. 15) The person who actually the act that causes the crime might be completely innocent of evil intent performs. 16) The person who the act unknowingly is an innocent agent carries out. 17) The is innocent agent not criminally responsible. 18) The causes person who the innocent agent to act is the principal in the first degree. 19) The accessory after the fact one who helps a felon to evade arrest by hiding him is. 20) The accessory after the fact one who helps a felon to evade conviction by destroying evidence is.

► Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Виновный; злое намерение; снабдить; заставлять; невиновный агент; соучастник после события преступления; подстрекать; нарушитель; поощрять; намеренно; инструменты; сообщник; иметь в руках; исполнитель преступления; удерживать; соучастник до события преступления; подлежащий; укрыватель преступника; недоносительство; уголовный преступник; избегнуть; установить личность преступника; словесный портрет преступника; невиновный по закону; осуждение.

► Ex. V. Complete the following statements.

1) Criminal responsibility is not limited to ... 2) Anyone who aids the perpetrator is ... 3) Those who actually perform the criminal act are called ... 4) Those who assist at the time of the commission of the offense are ... 5) Those who assist before the crime takes place are ... 6) Principals and accessories are equally responsible in ... and liable to ... 7) The accessory before the fact will be considered more culpable if he ... 8) The person who actually performs the act that causes the crime might be ... 9) The person who carries out the act is ... 10) The person who causes the innocent agent to act is ... 11) The accessory after the fact is...


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